Leptospirosis – Deadly Bacteria in Wild Life Urine

When wild animals such as skunks, raccoons, coyotes, deer, and rodents urinate, they excrete bacteria in their urine – one of the bacteria found in their urine is called Leptospirosis. This bacteria is often times deadly to our beloved dogs. When dogs go to parks or on hikes and drink the random standing puddles of water, they get infected with this awful bacteria. Often times, the rain makes this more prevalent and helps spread this bacteria around – what looks like a typical puddle of rain water, may really have Leptospirosis in it.

Symptoms of infection include loss of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Without treatment, dogs may suffer from kidney failure and pass away – time is of the essence and dogs need treatment as soon as possible.

Once a dog is infected, the dog may even spread the bacteria to other pets through their own urine and even humans too – yes, you read that right – YOU can get Leptospirosis (lepto) too!

Besides avoiding free standing water and puddles, the best way to protect your dog is to vaccinate them against the bacteria. You never know what that one random lick on a Saturday hike with your pup may lead to – we recommend every dog owner to be safe by vaccinating their pet, and not sorry.

If you suspect your pet may have Leptospirosis/Lepto, please call us 24/7: 925 937 5000

CareCredit Financing for Veterinary Care


CareCredit knows pets are family too. That’s why they offer veterinary financing to help keep your most cherished family members in top shape, and why we accept it!

Whether you use it to cover annual expenses like preventative care check-ups or for unexpected costs like pet prescriptions and emergencies, the CareCredit healthcare credit card makes it easy to give your pets the care they need, when they need it.

Here are just some of the many small and large animal veterinary procedures you can use your CareCredit healthcare credit card for:

  • Annual check-ups
  • Spay and neutering
  • Teeth cleaning
  • Parasites
  • Medication
  • Diagnostics
  • Emergency services
  • Care of chronic pet diseases and conditions
  • Vaccinations
  • Microchipping
  • Pet Food and Nutrition
  • Surgical Procedures
  • Each of our departments – general, internal medicine, oncology, neurology, dentistry, surgery, emergency – including consult fees, diagnostics, treatments, etc

CareCredit.com/VetMed

The Flea Life Cycle

We all shudder at the thought of having a flea problem in our home. A basic knowledge of the flea life cycle helps us understand why year-round flea prevention is important to help keep them at bay. Although many generally think of fleas as a problem on the animal, you will see that the majority of the fleas are present in the environment and they wait to hatch until the environmental conditions suit them.

The different stages of flea development
Eggs- Although they are laid on the host dog or cat, they fall off and hatch in the environment. They prefer high humidity and warm temperatures.
Larvae- They hatch in the environment and feed off of flea dirt (excrement). They molt several times before forming a cocoon for pupating.
Pupae- This is the dormant stage for the flea, where they can reside in the environment and wait for the right time to emerge when the conditions (temperature, humidity) are right. They are very difficult to kill in this stage.
Unfed adult flea- A mature flea that is seeking a new host. It can live for months without feeding but is actively seeking a host.
Fed adult flea- This flea can now reproduce and begins to produce eggs within 1-2 days of feeding. An adult female flea can lay up to 40 eggs per day and live for 4 to 6 weeks. A single flea can bite your pet every 5 minutes, meaning that even a single flea can cause severe itchiness and discomfort for a pet that has a flea allergy.

Why does the life cycle matter?
• The flea spends the majority of its life in the environment, which means you may not see fleas on your pet but there may be a significant flea problem. Veterinarians often look for telltale signs of fleas on a pet (flea dirt, rashes on the rear end or groin area) because directly visualizing a live flea is uncommon unless there is a heavy flea load.
• Flea eggs and larvae often develop in dark, humid areas such as under furniture or in between cushions, in carpet, in between hardwood floor boards, and outside under brush piles and bushes. This means that successfully treating the environment may be very difficult because the common sprays and “bug bombs” do not reach the areas where the immature stages of the flea are living. Instead of treating the environment, we often focus on consistently using a monthly flea product on all animals in the household for several months so that the fleas in the environment are killed as they mature and jump on the pet to take a meal. It may also help to vacuum and dispose of the vacuum bags and wash bedding or pillows in hot water. For severe infestations it may be best to consult with a professional pest control company.

Approach to flea control
• Use a flea product year round on all animals in the household. This prevents a flea infestation from setting up in your home over the winter and maturing in spring when the temperatures rise.
• There are many options for flea preventatives that can be tailored to your pets’ lifestyle and preferences. Consult with your veterinarian for the best product for you and your pet.

Marissa Woodall, DVM

Riley the Dog’s Prosthetic Orthopedic Foot

Riley is a 1 year old mixed canine who was recently adopted from Guatemala! With the help of OrthoPets: Orthotics and Prosthetics for Animals, Board Certified Veterinary Surgeon Dr. Carl Koelher will be creating a prosthetic foot for Riley the dog. Here’s a few pictures of the process:

Why Does My Pet Need a Rectal Exam?

We’ve all been there before. Bella comes to the vet for a regular checkup or maybe she has another pesky ear infection. Bella is very excited to come and get treats and attention. She is then disappointed to find that she must tolerate a full physical exam. As the friendly veterinarian is performing the part of the exam we usually save for last, you and Bella both wonder if it is really necessary to perform a rectal exam. After all, you are just there for an ear infection! I am here to tell you that it is absolutely necessary and you are not getting your money’s worth out of the physical exam if a rectal is not performed.

– The first thing a veterinarian evaluates on a rectal exam
is the quality of the stool. An owner may describe that there is blood in the stool but a veterinarian will be able to determine if it is actual blood or maybe just red dye from something the pet ingested.
For better or for worse, veterinarians have a lot of experience looking at poop and can learn a lot about your pet’s health by examining it.

– Another thing we evaluate is the anal glands. We can detect
and relieve an anal gland obstruction or treat an abscess. We can also find a tumor of the anal glands or colon early, before your pet shows any signs, which allows for the best outcome in treating these tumors.

– A rectal exam allows us to feel lymph nodes inside the
abdomen (the sublumbar lymph nodes) and helps us diagnose cancers and inflammation or infection that can cause these lymph nodes to enlarge.

– A rectal exam is a must for a pet that has sustained a
trauma such as getting hit by a car because it allows us to feel for pelvic fractures. We can also feel certain bony tumors.

– In male dogs, a rectal exam involves feeling the prostate
for enlargement or pain which may be signs of infection or cancer.

– We can feel the urethra in female dogs via a rectal exam.
This allows us to detect any abnormal thickening or stones lodged in the urethra. Sometimes stones are lodged in a position that overlaps with the pelvis on x-rays and a rectal exam is the easiest way to find them.

– Part of assessing a dog’s neurologic status is checking the anal tone of the dog. Decreased anal tone can be a sign of disease in the spinal cord.

As you can see, while rectal exams aren’t a veterinarian or a pet’s favorite past time, they are vital for assessing the health of your dog and diagnosing disease early in its course.

Alina Kelman, DVM

Why Does My Pet Scoot?

A pet “scooting” or dragging its hind end on the floor, grass, or nice carpet is a common sight, especially in smaller overweight pets (but larger dogs can be affected too!). Both dogs and cats can show signs of scooting their behind on the floor. Most of the time it means there is an issue with their anal sacs. Anal sacs that get impacted or infected can cause itching, bad odor, pain or discharge. Other signs of an anal sac issue may include chewing or licking the area, swelling around the anus or difficulty defecating. There are other possible causes of scooting such as peri-anal tumors, irritation from diarrhea, worms or matted hair. It is important if you see signs of scooting to see a veterinarian to rule out these other possible causes.

What are anal sacs?
The anal sacs collect oily secretions from the glandular tissue that lines the sacs. If the anus was a clock viewed from behind the anal sacs sit at 8 pm and 4 pm between the muscles of the anus. The oily secretions are used for “marking” or communication between other cats or dogs. Usually a normal bowel movement is sufficient enough to express the anal sacs. If a pet is having loose stool or diarrhea they may not be adequately expressed.

What should I do if I see my pet scooting?
The first thing you should do is schedule an appointment with your veterinarian to rule out the various causes. If left untreated minor inflammation of the anal sacs could turn into infection, abscessation or rupture. This can be an extremely painful condition for your pet.

What are some treatment options?
Treatment options for anal sac issues depend on the cause (impaction, infection, abscess, tumor). Treatment can range from simply expressing the anal sacs to lancing or flushing under general anesthesia. Other options include antibiotics to treat infection, pain medications, warm compressing or diet change (increasing fiber). Please speak to your veterinarian about specific treatment for your pet’s condition.

How are the anal sacs emptied?
Anal sacs are emptied by applying compression to the anal sacs and extruding the oily material. Normal anal sacs do NOT need to be expressed manually and it is not recommended unless indicated by your vet. If anal sac expression does need to be performed there are a couple ways. This can be done outside the anus by gently pushing up on the anal sacs towards the anus. It can also be done by wearing a latex glove and inserting your finger into the anus using your thumb and forefinger to express the contents. It is important to have safe proper restraint while performing either of these techniques. For pets with recurring problems they may need their anal glands expressed frequently. It is best to have your veterinarian evaluate your pet and show you proper safe restraint and technique before trying this at home.

My pet keeps scooting!
If your pet is having recurrent problems please see your veterinarian! They will want to rule out all the possible causes including anal sac tumors. If frequent anal sac expression is not doing the trick surgery to remove the anal sacs can be performed. Your veterinarian will have other options for long term management.

Any questions, concerns or if your pet is ill please see your veterinarian! This blog post is meant for informational purposes only.

Lisa Shapiro, DVM

Emergency Preparedness for Pets

Medical emergencies can be terrifying, especially when the emergency involves your pet. Being prepared for an emergency ahead of time can not only make the situation less scary but can even improve your pet’s chances for making a full recovery. In some cases, being prepared can save precious time and mean the difference between life and death for your pet.

Every pet is different and you, as the owner, are in the best position to notice when something abnormal is going on with your pet. Signs that something is serious and your pet should be evaluated ASAP can range from vague signs (lethargy, inappetence, panting excessively) to more obvious signs (vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, collapse, trouble breathing, lameness, inability to stand, etc). If your pet is obviously sick, it should be evaluated by a veterinarian as soon as possible. There are some things that you can do to help make the process more efficient and to help your veterinarian provide the best care for your pet as quickly as possible.

When is an emergency really an emergency? When in doubt, call your primary care veterinarian or an emergency clinic if it is after hours. Veterinary clinics receive calls frequently from clients asking about whether the current clinical signs are enough to warrant an emergency trip to the veterinarian. The staff are usually very good at asking the right questions to determine whether your pet should be seen right away.

What can I do to be prepared?

Phone numbers! Keep the number and address for your pet’s primary care veterinarian and the emergency veterinary clinic in your area in an easily accessible place. If you do not know which emergency clinic to take your pet to, ask your veterinarian for a recommendation or go to the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society website (www.veccs.org) and click on the directory link for emergency clinics. If you think your pet is sick, don’t wait to call! Waiting can lead to bigger problems, a more challenging disease or problem to treat and more expensive treatment. You should also keep the number for poison control with your list of emergency numbers. If your pet has ingested a potential toxin, call poison control before or when you arrive at your veterinarian’s office. It is usually less expensive for you to call poison control than if your veterinarian calls. When you call poison control, you will receive a case number. Give this number to the veterinarian seeing your pet. Your veterinarian will then be able to call poison control and discuss the case with a toxicologist without being charged another fee.

Medical record and current medications: Keep a copy of your pet’s medical record (including all bloodwork, test results, CDs with xrays, etc) on hand to bring with you. If your pet is seeing a veterinarian other than your regular veterinarian, it will be very helpful for the veterinarian evaluating your pet and preparing a treatment plan to have access to your pet’s previous medical records. You should also keep a list of all current medications, doses and frequency. This is very important information for your veterinarian to know so that they can make appropriate treatment decisions (some medications can cause serious side effects if used together!).

For further information on being prepared for pet emergencies, visit the following websites:
• American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA)/Healthy Pet: https://www.aaha.org/pet_owner/pet_health_library/general_health_care/default.aspx
• The University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine: http://vetmed.illinois.edu/petcolumns/petcols_article_page.php?OLDPETCOLID=530
• American Red Cross: http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/pet-safety
• VeterinaryPartner.com: http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Content.plx?P=SRC&S=1&SourceID=20
• AVMA First Aid Tips for Pet Owners: https://www.avma.org/public/EmergencyCare/Pages/First-Aid-Tips-for-Pet-Owners.aspx

Renee Hartshorn, DVM

Why does my vet have to do all that bloodwork

Bloodwork that we run here at Encina Veterinary Hospital falls into a few basic categories.

1) The CBC, or Complete Blood Count, measures the number, size, shape, and types of cells that are in the blood. The two main varieties of blood cells are the red blood cells and the white blood cells. The red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to all of the body’s tissues. Assessing the red blood cells can tell us about diseases which cause acute or chronic blood loss, dehydration, destruction of red blood cells, or a decrease in production of red blood cells. Assessing the white blood cells tells us about infection, inflammation, clotting, and some cancers.
The veterinarian may also make a blood smear to get a closer look at the shape of cells which can be affected by various diseases or to confirm abnormal findings picked up by the CBC machine. The findings of the CBC are not always specific and must be interpreted in light of other diagnostics but it is a great place to start in order to be able to rule out broad categories of disease.

2) The blood chemistry and electrolytes are another component of basic bloodwork. This tells us about kidney and liver function, metabolic diseases, some cancers, endocrine diseases, gastrointestinal function, toxicities, and more.

“That’s all fine,” you say, “but why does Sadie need her blood checked when she just broke a nail?” Whenever we prescribe certain medications, such as an anti-inflammatory and pain medication in case of a broken nail, we have to keep in mind potential side effects and risks to the patient. Anti-inflammatories used in pets, such as Rimadyl, are generally very safe but can have rare and serious side effects involving the kidneys, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. When we prescribe Rimadyl we want to be sure that your pet does not have a condition that makes him or her more susceptible to these side effects so that a broken nail does not turn into kidney failure!

“Ok, but Rover just had bloodwork done a month ago, why are we repeating it?” Great question! Blood cell counts and chemistry can change day to day. If Rover is coming in to us with clinical signs which did not exist at the last visit, he may have significant changes in his bloodwork which will help us to diagnose his new illness.

“But Fluffy has never been sick in her life, why does my wellness appointment include bloodwork?” Our pets can’t tell us how they feel and often put on their bravest face for us, concealing chronic illness.

Annual bloodwork for them is like bloodwork every 7 or so years for us.

Early detection of certain chronic diseases such as kidney disease can help us take measures to slow their progression such as changing the diet of the pet.

Remember, if you have a question about why the veterinarian wants to perform a certain blood test, just ask! We would be happy to explain the reasoning and the risks we would be taking by not performing the bloodwork.

Dr. Alina Kelman

How to Administer Subcutaneous Fluids to Pet Cats or Dogs

Many medical conditions may require treatment with subcutaneous fluids. If your veterinarian has prescribed fluids to be administered to your pet under its skin (subcutaneously), this video will help you to set up your fluid bag and line, as well as how to administer the correct amount of fluids.

My Dog was Skunked! What to do…

Skunks produce an oily liquid that is yellow in color and produced by glands in the anal region. The skunks glands produce the liquid, which is stored in 2 sacs that each have a duct that exits at the 4 and 8 o’clock position around the anal opening. Dogs and cats have similar structures. Dogs and cats produce less pungent material that is thought to be used for marking territory, while skunks use their’s for defensive purposes. Each sac can hold about 1 teaspoon of liquid, which is enough for multiple sprays. The oily liquid is made up of multiple ingredients, most of which are sulfur-containing thiols that give the liquid its potent smell. It is thought that people can smell the liquid at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion. As a result, it can be very difficult to completely remove skunk odor from a pet that has been sprayed by a skunk. If the animal is harmed in anyway during the encounter with a skunk, you should seek veterinary care.

Paul Krebaum’s home remedy for removal of skunk odor.
Tomato juice (with or without vinegar) used to be commonly advised to remove skunk odor, but it is relatively ineffective. The most common home remedy recommended for removal of skunk odor was developed by a chemist, Paul Krebaum. It involves a mixture of the following:

– 1 quart of 3% hydrogen peroxide (usually sold in pints, so 2 bottles needed)
– ¼ cup baking soda (Arm and Hammer is the most common brand)
– 1-2 tsp liquid hand soap (preferred brands are “Softsoap” and “Ivory Liquid”)

The ingredients should be mixed in an open plastic container with plastic utensils and then used immediately. An open container is important due to the amount of gas produced; while plastic is preferred as metal will encourage decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. The solution can be diluted with 1 quart of lukewarm water for larger pets to help cover a wider area. The solution is placed on the animal while avoiding any exposure to the eyes, ears and mouth. A small strip of eye lubricant or few drops of mineral oil can be placed in the eye for protection. The solution should remain for at least five minutes prior to washing it off and can be repeated as necessary. Use of latex or rubber gloves and old clothing is recommended.

Paul Krebaum’s recipe works by focusing on the chemical nature of the thiols that create the skunk smell. Thiols are not water soluble even with soap. The soap serves to keep the coat wet and get the oily skunk spray into solution where it can react with the other ingredients. The baking soda facilitates the ability of hydrogen peroxide to alter the thiol through oxidation into a water-soluble form as a sulfonate for easy removal.

Commercial remedies for removal of skunk odor
If you are not inclined to try a home remedy for the skunk smell, numerous commercial products exist on the market that have had variable results. Nature’s Miracle skunk remover is one option. This product is thought to work by enzymatic breakdown of the thiols and works best when massaged into a dry coat and left for hours while it dries. Odor-Mute and Earth Friendly Products skunk odor remover are other products that are designed to work by enzymatic breakdown of the thiols. Skunk Off is another product for skunk odor remover that uses various non-enzymatic methods for odor control as described on the website.

There are a number of professional products that are available, that are better applied for environmental control in difficult situations. Products include Neutroleum Alpha, Freshwave, Epoleon and Nisus Bac-Azap. Information regarding these products and additional information regarding removal of skunk odor can be found through the University of Nebraska – Lincoln Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

By Dr Stephen Atwater