Archives for August 2014

My Dog was Skunked! What to do…

Skunks produce an oily liquid that is yellow in color and produced by glands in the anal region. The skunks glands produce the liquid, which is stored in 2 sacs that each have a duct that exits at the 4 and 8 o’clock position around the anal opening. Dogs and cats have similar structures. Dogs and cats produce less pungent material that is thought to be used for marking territory, while skunks use their’s for defensive purposes. Each sac can hold about 1 teaspoon of liquid, which is enough for multiple sprays. The oily liquid is made up of multiple ingredients, most of which are sulfur-containing thiols that give the liquid its potent smell. It is thought that people can smell the liquid at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion. As a result, it can be very difficult to completely remove skunk odor from a pet that has been sprayed by a skunk. If the animal is harmed in anyway during the encounter with a skunk, you should seek veterinary care.

Paul Krebaum’s home remedy for removal of skunk odor.
Tomato juice (with or without vinegar) used to be commonly advised to remove skunk odor, but it is relatively ineffective. The most common home remedy recommended for removal of skunk odor was developed by a chemist, Paul Krebaum. It involves a mixture of the following:

– 1 quart of 3% hydrogen peroxide (usually sold in pints, so 2 bottles needed)
– ¼ cup baking soda (Arm and Hammer is the most common brand)
– 1-2 tsp liquid hand soap (preferred brands are “Softsoap” and “Ivory Liquid”)

The ingredients should be mixed in an open plastic container with plastic utensils and then used immediately. An open container is important due to the amount of gas produced; while plastic is preferred as metal will encourage decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. The solution can be diluted with 1 quart of lukewarm water for larger pets to help cover a wider area. The solution is placed on the animal while avoiding any exposure to the eyes, ears and mouth. A small strip of eye lubricant or few drops of mineral oil can be placed in the eye for protection. The solution should remain for at least five minutes prior to washing it off and can be repeated as necessary. Use of latex or rubber gloves and old clothing is recommended.

Paul Krebaum’s recipe works by focusing on the chemical nature of the thiols that create the skunk smell. Thiols are not water soluble even with soap. The soap serves to keep the coat wet and get the oily skunk spray into solution where it can react with the other ingredients. The baking soda facilitates the ability of hydrogen peroxide to alter the thiol through oxidation into a water-soluble form as a sulfonate for easy removal.

Commercial remedies for removal of skunk odor
If you are not inclined to try a home remedy for the skunk smell, numerous commercial products exist on the market that have had variable results. Nature’s Miracle skunk remover is one option. This product is thought to work by enzymatic breakdown of the thiols and works best when massaged into a dry coat and left for hours while it dries. Odor-Mute and Earth Friendly Products skunk odor remover are other products that are designed to work by enzymatic breakdown of the thiols. Skunk Off is another product for skunk odor remover that uses various non-enzymatic methods for odor control as described on the website.

There are a number of professional products that are available, that are better applied for environmental control in difficult situations. Products include Neutroleum Alpha, Freshwave, Epoleon and Nisus Bac-Azap. Information regarding these products and additional information regarding removal of skunk odor can be found through the University of Nebraska – Lincoln Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

By Dr Stephen Atwater

The Impact of Stress on Indoor Pets

It has been well established that there is an important link between mental health and overall health and well-being of people. Avoiding stress plays a critical role in the general welfare of people. It should not be surprising that the same can be said for dogs and cats. Poor mental health in dogs and cats often lead to behavioral problems such as house soiling or aggression that may lead to animals being relinquished, abandoned, or euthanized. Although it may not be easily apparent, poor mental health can result in the development of disease conditions and a poor quality of life for the pet. Owners can best avoid problems by understanding the normal behavior and general needs of their dog and cat. In doing so, owners can provide the best preventative and therapeutic care for their pet.

General guidelines for the well being of indoor pets
An important need for the well being of children is a predictable daily routine, predictable consequences and environmental enrichment. When parents provide these things to their children, children are less likely to develop behavioral problems as they feel they have more control of their lives and circumstances. It should not come as a surprise that the same holds true for indoor pets. Daily routine for indoor pets include feeding, elimination, social play and environmental exploration, and sleep or periods of rest. These needs vary depending on the breed and age of the animal, as well as the household itself. By making these basic needs regular and predictable events, the indoor pet gains some sense of control and therefore less stress in knowing how these basic needs will be met.

The Indoor Pet Initiative
An excellent website on environmental issues for dogs and cats is available for veterinarians and pet owners, called the Indoor Pet Initiative . It was created by The Ohio State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine with the purpose of providing information that describes the basic physical and behavioral needs of dogs and cats. It also provides basic recommendations for dealing with common behavioral problems and resources for help in addressing more severe or dangerous behavioral issues. Being aware of and understanding normal companion animal behavior and needs will help improve the quality of life of your pet dog or cat. One of the main goals of the Indoor Pet Initiative is to improve the quality of life of indoor pets by increasing knowledge and awareness of normal companion animal behavior and needs.

Dr Stephen Atwater

Employee of the Month for August 2014: Melanie!


Nearly 4 years ago, Melanie Grajeda joined the Doctor’s Assistant team here at Encina Veterinary Hospital. Since then, she’s been non-stop – “filling prescriptions, calculating doses, rooming patients, creating and reviewing estimates and client communication” – are just a few things she manages each and every day.

Before Encina Melanie says, “I hated my job because I was working in a small general practice hospital and after working in emergency for 3 years, I needed something busier!” Well she got her wish! “I LOVE how busy it is, how much I learn every day, all the different cases we see and I really like my coworkers”.

She attributes her success here to her beloved ability to “thrive in a chaotic environment” because she “loves to learn and I am more efficient when it’s busy than when it’s slow because I am just the right amount of crazy”.

Although she loves it here, she does admit there is a challenge: “I am super controlling and neurotic and a little bit obsessive compulsive so I have trouble sharing tasks and knowing when to say ‘enough is enough’”.

Outside of Encina, Melanie admits to being a lady of leisure, to an extent. “I have another job outside of Encina but when I’m free from both, I like to go to A’s games, hang out with friends and explore the city of Oakland.”

If you’re dreaming of a serenade from Melanie, be sure to turn on “Don’t Stop Believing” by Journey or anything by Queen as she can’t help but sing along to either.

For her dinner party dreams, Melanie hopes to invite Freddy Mercury, Johnny Cash and her living grandfather.

“I was very surprised!” she says of winning this month’s EOM. “I’m very appreciative and excited about my parking spot!!”