My Dog was Skunked! What to do…

Skunks produce an oily liquid that is yellow in color and produced by glands in the anal region. The skunks glands produce the liquid, which is stored in 2 sacs that each have a duct that exits at the 4 and 8 o’clock position around the anal opening. Dogs and cats have similar structures. Dogs and cats produce less pungent material that is thought to be used for marking territory, while skunks use their’s for defensive purposes. Each sac can hold about 1 teaspoon of liquid, which is enough for multiple sprays. The oily liquid is made up of multiple ingredients, most of which are sulfur-containing thiols that give the liquid its potent smell. It is thought that people can smell the liquid at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion. As a result, it can be very difficult to completely remove skunk odor from a pet that has been sprayed by a skunk. If the animal is harmed in anyway during the encounter with a skunk, you should seek veterinary care.

Paul Krebaum’s home remedy for removal of skunk odor.
Tomato juice (with or without vinegar) used to be commonly advised to remove skunk odor, but it is relatively ineffective. The most common home remedy recommended for removal of skunk odor was developed by a chemist, Paul Krebaum. It involves a mixture of the following:

- 1 quart of 3% hydrogen peroxide (usually sold in pints, so 2 bottles needed)
- ¼ cup baking soda (Arm and Hammer is the most common brand)
- 1-2 tsp liquid hand soap (preferred brands are “Softsoap” and “Ivory Liquid”)

The ingredients should be mixed in an open plastic container with plastic utensils and then used immediately. An open container is important due to the amount of gas produced; while plastic is preferred as metal will encourage decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. The solution can be diluted with 1 quart of lukewarm water for larger pets to help cover a wider area. The solution is placed on the animal while avoiding any exposure to the eyes, ears and mouth. A small strip of eye lubricant or few drops of mineral oil can be placed in the eye for protection. The solution should remain for at least five minutes prior to washing it off and can be repeated as necessary. Use of latex or rubber gloves and old clothing is recommended.

Paul Krebaum’s recipe works by focusing on the chemical nature of the thiols that create the skunk smell. Thiols are not water soluble even with soap. The soap serves to keep the coat wet and get the oily skunk spray into solution where it can react with the other ingredients. The baking soda facilitates the ability of hydrogen peroxide to alter the thiol through oxidation into a water-soluble form as a sulfonate for easy removal.

Commercial remedies for removal of skunk odor
If you are not inclined to try a home remedy for the skunk smell, numerous commercial products exist on the market that have had variable results. Nature’s Miracle skunk remover is one option. This product is thought to work by enzymatic breakdown of the thiols and works best when massaged into a dry coat and left for hours while it dries. Odor-Mute and Earth Friendly Products skunk odor remover are other products that are designed to work by enzymatic breakdown of the thiols. Skunk Off is another product for skunk odor remover that uses various non-enzymatic methods for odor control as described on the website.

There are a number of professional products that are available, that are better applied for environmental control in difficult situations. Products include Neutroleum Alpha, Freshwave, Epoleon and Nisus Bac-Azap. Information regarding these products and additional information regarding removal of skunk odor can be found through the University of Nebraska – Lincoln Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

By Dr Stephen Atwater

The Impact of Stress on Indoor Pets

It has been well established that there is an important link between mental health and overall health and well-being of people. Avoiding stress plays a critical role in the general welfare of people. It should not be surprising that the same can be said for dogs and cats. Poor mental health in dogs and cats often lead to behavioral problems such as house soiling or aggression that may lead to animals being relinquished, abandoned, or euthanized. Although it may not be easily apparent, poor mental health can result in the development of disease conditions and a poor quality of life for the pet. Owners can best avoid problems by understanding the normal behavior and general needs of their dog and cat. In doing so, owners can provide the best preventative and therapeutic care for their pet.

General guidelines for the well being of indoor pets
An important need for the well being of children is a predictable daily routine, predictable consequences and environmental enrichment. When parents provide these things to their children, children are less likely to develop behavioral problems as they feel they have more control of their lives and circumstances. It should not come as a surprise that the same holds true for indoor pets. Daily routine for indoor pets include feeding, elimination, social play and environmental exploration, and sleep or periods of rest. These needs vary depending on the breed and age of the animal, as well as the household itself. By making these basic needs regular and predictable events, the indoor pet gains some sense of control and therefore less stress in knowing how these basic needs will be met.

The Indoor Pet Initiative
An excellent website on environmental issues for dogs and cats is available for veterinarians and pet owners, called the Indoor Pet Initiative . It was created by The Ohio State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine with the purpose of providing information that describes the basic physical and behavioral needs of dogs and cats. It also provides basic recommendations for dealing with common behavioral problems and resources for help in addressing more severe or dangerous behavioral issues. Being aware of and understanding normal companion animal behavior and needs will help improve the quality of life of your pet dog or cat. One of the main goals of the Indoor Pet Initiative is to improve the quality of life of indoor pets by increasing knowledge and awareness of normal companion animal behavior and needs.

Dr Stephen Atwater

Employee of the Month for August 2014: Melanie!


Nearly 4 years ago, Melanie Grajeda joined the Doctor’s Assistant team here at Encina Veterinary Hospital. Since then, she’s been non-stop – “filling prescriptions, calculating doses, rooming patients, creating and reviewing estimates and client communication” – are just a few things she manages each and every day.

Before Encina Melanie says, “I hated my job because I was working in a small general practice hospital and after working in emergency for 3 years, I needed something busier!” Well she got her wish! “I LOVE how busy it is, how much I learn every day, all the different cases we see and I really like my coworkers”.

She attributes her success here to her beloved ability to “thrive in a chaotic environment” because she “loves to learn and I am more efficient when it’s busy than when it’s slow because I am just the right amount of crazy”.

Although she loves it here, she does admit there is a challenge: “I am super controlling and neurotic and a little bit obsessive compulsive so I have trouble sharing tasks and knowing when to say ‘enough is enough’”.

Outside of Encina, Melanie admits to being a lady of leisure, to an extent. “I have another job outside of Encina but when I’m free from both, I like to go to A’s games, hang out with friends and explore the city of Oakland.”

If you’re dreaming of a serenade from Melanie, be sure to turn on “Don’t Stop Believing” by Journey or anything by Queen as she can’t help but sing along to either.

For her dinner party dreams, Melanie hopes to invite Freddy Mercury, Johnny Cash and her living grandfather.

“I was very surprised!” she says of winning this month’s EOM. “I’m very appreciative and excited about my parking spot!!”

Employee of the Month for June 2014: Krista!

As a Doctor’s Assistant on the Client Care Team, every day for Krista is filled to the max! “rooming patients, putting together estimates and invoices, dispensing medications, answering questions and client concerns, setting up appointments and scheduling surgeries, AND whatever else my doctor needs!” are just some of the tasks she does day in and day out since joining our team in July of 2011.

Nearly 2 years ago when Krista joined us, she says that Allison recruited her, “and I wanted to broaden my experiences in the veterinary field”. She attributes her success here to her “very supportive team” and “team leaders are very encouraging and help whenever needed.”

Although public speaking is hard for her she admits, she appreciates the ability to “learn something new every day” which she says is her favorite part of the job.

“I was surprised!” says Krista about her employee of the month for June. “My efforts don’t go unnoticed and I feel like my contributions are actually appreciated … Everything I have been through recently, everyone here is so helpful, everyone just wants me back to 100%.

Hanging out with friends, family; concerts and baseball games are a few of her favorite things to do when she isn’t here but lately she’s been building and fixing her fence that BB, her dog, continues to break through. “It’s so frustrating!”

Although she has only seen the movie once, she says the Snowman song from Frozen is the catchiest tune around right now that she can’t help but sing along too.

Given the opportunity to host a dinner party she immediately says she would invite Usher, along with Jay Sean and her grandfather who has passed away – “it would be very interesting!” she says with her classic laugh.

Employee of the Month: May 2014

Danielle Quintero, RVT
Patient Care Team

Over 6 years ago, Danielle (aka DQ)walked into Encina Veterinary Hospital and became a crucial part of our team. Her role as a Registered Veterinary Technician plays such an important part in our hospital – both to patients and to collegues.

Each day, DQ tends to our emergency patients as well as those in-patients who need around the clock care in our ICU unit. Inbetween ICU patients and emergency patients, DQ monitors anesthesia and vitals of our patients in surgery.

DQ decided to join the team at Encina 6 years ago for some very practical reasons: close to home, featured emergency and critical veterinary care and of course, we were hiring! She continues to stay and grow with us because she likes the “fast paced, multi tasking team based environment, the way we manage cases and the high quality veterinary medicine we provide.”

She admits the job isn’t always easy, as she can’t “save them all,” but she says her strong work ethic keeps her focused and successful. “I was honored, very shocked,” says DQ when she was told that she had won our Employee of the Month for May.

When DQ is not here at the hospital, she stays busy thanks to her 3 year old son AJ and trips to Monterey Bay’s beach. At home, you can catch her gardening (she’s got some roses she is particularly proud of), home improvement projects and Netflixing her new guilty pleasure Revenge.

DQ says the song that will never fail to make her sing along to is Gloria Gaynor’s, I Will Survive. Should she have a dinner party with 3 people dead or alive, her picks are: her father, Etta James and Chuck Berry – a party focused on her love for music.

Welcome Dr. Liz Milauskas!

We are very excited to announce the return of Dr. Liz Milauskas to Encina Veterinary Hospital as she will join our team of doctors as a full-time general practitioner starting NOW!

Dr. Milauskas was raised in southern California. Unsurprisingly to her friends and family, Dr. Milauskas pursued a career as a veterinarian after completing her undergraduate degree in Biological Sciences in 1994 from UC Davis. Following graduation, she moved to Dublin, Ireland where she attended veterinary school at University College, Dublin Ireland Upon graduating with a degree in veterinary medicine in 2000 she returned to the United States and began practicing veterinary medicine in Oregon for the next 8 years.

In 2008 to 2009, Dr. Milauskas returned to California and completed an internship at Encina Veterinary Hospital. In addition to completing the internship, Dr. Milauskas studied alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, and has integrated them with traditional veterinary medicine. Since completing a veterinarian acupuncture course at Colorado State University she has become a certified veterinary acupuncturist.

Dr. Milauskas is also certified in Penn Hip, which is a multi-faceted radiographic screening method for canine hip evaluation. This is the ideal way to radiographically evaluate canine hips for dysplasia and there are only a small percentage of veterinarians that are certified to perform this diagnostic test.

Dr. Milauskas is a member of the American Veterinary Medical Association, the California Veterinary Medical Association, the Oregon Veterinary Medical Association, and the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society.

On her days away from veterinary medicine she enjoys running, hiking, traveling, and spending time with her husband, their two Labradors (Kiely and Lily) and their French Bulldog (Max).

Employee of the Month: April 2014

Yesenia Flores
Patient Care Team

Yesenia is a technician and part of the Patient Care Team here at Encina Veterinary Hospital. Her responsibilities include: monitoring anesthesia for any patients in surgery, inpatient care for our hospitalized patients and outpatient care for those patients that drop by for just an hour or so.

Yesenia began here at Encina in July of 2013, when she had heard about us from a veterinarian in Colorado who recommended us to her as a place of employment. “The quality of medicine, a place that was top-notch and utilized their technicians to the fullest potential” was something Yesenia was specifically looking for when she came here – and she found it!

Yesenia attributes her success here in part to the people she works with every day. She says her co-workers are, “very nice, helpful, encourage learning and everyone meshes well together – from the doctors, to the staff up front and the technicians.” Her greatest challenge at work is facing the tough cases – “where we have tried everything and there is nothing more to do. We fall in love with our patients and they pass.”

Outside of Encina, she enjoys spending her time relaxing at home with her critters – including a turtle. Right now she’s got “Do You Want to Build a Snowman?” from the Frozen soundtrack stuck in her head. And if she were to have 3 people over for dinner – dead or alive – she would pick, “Pancho – my cat who has been lost for the last 2 months and my mom and dad – yes they’re alive, I live with them! I just love them so much.”

Cats and Hairballs: Normal or Not?

We’ve all heard (and probably have seen) that cats get hairballs which are literal balls of fur that are vomited up. But is this normal?

Yes and no – let us explain.

Cats are known for their grooming habits. It seems that when cats aren’t sleeping or being curious, they’re grooming themselves to perfection. And with all this meticulous grooming, it’s only natural and normal for a cat to occasionally have a hair ball or two every few months. The part when it becomes an issue is when the frequency of hairballs is more frequent then one or two every few months, which can be a symptom of an underlying condition.

One way to reduce the amount of fur your feline friend consumes is using a deshedding tool such as a brush or Furminator. These tools help remove hair that your pet may otherwise eat and vomit later.

If you’re seeking peace of mind an answers, the best thing is a trip to Encina Veterinary Hospital where one of our veterinarians can assess and treat your beloved feline, and get to the root of the problem.

Importance of Wellness Care

It seems less and less pet owners are bringing their pets in for wellness/annual exams and we’re hearing more and more of, “nothing is wrong”. The sad truth is that when something is wrong, it’s a little more difficult to treat because that something that is wrong, has grown and progressed since the “nothing is wrong” days.

Pets aren’t getting the regular care they need and that’s a problem because by the time some pets make it to Encina Veterinary Hospital, they have serious illnesses that could have been prevented with regular, routine veterinary care.

Annual exams, routine blood work, vaccines and dental cleanings all keep your beloved pet healthy and happy, longer. We LOVE celebrating normal and healthy and we think you should too! These routine protocols help prevent heart disease among many, which can lead to premature death for your pet. Chronic diseases and illnesses don’t need to evolve, spread and cause your pet harm if we catch it quickly in an annual exam, versus when pets begin showing signs.

Let us help in keeping your furkid healthy and happy by your side for as long as possible with an annual exam and routine blood work. We’re here for you always, open 24 hours, 7 days a week.

Dr. Stepita’s Behavior Tip

Adding a New Pet to the Family
    When considering adding a new pet to your family I highly recommend researching which species and/or breed best match your lifestyle and family situation. Your veterinarian is a great resource! Drs. Lynette and Ben Hart have studied breed and gender differences among cats and the information can be found in their new book, Your Ideal Cat. Interested in the dog version? The original study which was performed in the 1980’s is called The Perfect Puppy: How to Choose Your Dog by Its Behavior….. Look out for the updated version of this book which should be published soon (FYI- the Hart’s found similar information in the new dog study as they did when they performed the original study, but the new book will include more breeds).

Here are a few pieces of information found in these studies:
1. Female dogs are easier to housetrain than males
2. Terriers rank high in snapping at children
3. Bengal cats rank high in aggression and urinating outside of the litterbox

Meredith Stepita, DVM, Dipl. ACVB

604037_10151845381783282_568163878_n
Izzy is currently up for adoption through Community Concern for Cats in Walnut Creek. Izzy is a sweet kitty, great with other cats and dogs, and settles in very quickly. She also is fine with loud noises like a hair dryer, the vacuum, etc. And she likes to lick! She can be silly and loves to play with other kitties. (click image for larger size)